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Sports Nutrition


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Sports Nutrition - 
ESSENTIALS
RESEARCH
PRODUCTS

 KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Sports Nutrition - is the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance. It is also the study of the relationship of food and drink to health and disease, especially in determining an optimal diet.

HGH - Human Growth Hormone

  • SKIN - Increased skin elasticity, texture, and tightness.
  • ENERGY - Increased energy and emotional stability
  • BONE - Improved bone strength.
  • SEXUAL POWER - Increased sexual potency and frequency.
  • MUSCLE - Increased muscle strength and mass.
  • FAT - Decreased fat tissue.
  • MEMORY - Improved mental functioning and strength.
  • HEART - Improved cardiovascular strength and lower blood pressure.
  • KIDNEY - Improved kidney function.
  • IMMUNE SYSTEM - Improved immunity and healing.
  • HAIR - Improved hair texture.
  • CHOLESTEROL - Elevated HDL and lowered LDL.

Protein - any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes; "a diet high in protein

Muscle Strength - the property of ones muscular system being physically or mentally strong

Creatine -
an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in 
the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction

Dietary supplements -
As defined by Congress in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (http://www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/dshea.html#sec3), which became law in 1994, a dietary supplement is a product (other than tobacco) that

  • is intended to supplement the diet;
  • contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins; minerals; herbs or other botanicals; amino acids; and other substances) or their constituents;
  • is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; and
  • is labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement.

What is a new dietary ingredient?

A new dietary ingredient is a dietary ingredient that was not sold in the United States in a dietary supplement before October 15, 1994.

Are dietary supplements different from foods and drugs?

Although dietary supplements are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as foods, they are regulated differently from other foods and from drugs. Whether a product is classified as a dietary supplement, conventional food, or drug is based on its intended use. Most often, classification as a dietary supplement is determined by the information that the manufacturer provides on the product label or in accompanying literature, although many food and dietary supplement product labels do not include this information.

Multi-Vitamins - any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism

Bodybuilding sports supplements 

Glutamine -
one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth.  It has been suggested glutamine is utilized at a higher than normal rate in people living with diseases that strain the immune system, such as HIV. Glutamine is used in the digestive process and a deficiency may contribute to wasting.

Weight Gain - 13 tips for gaining the right amount and type of weight for optimal health

1. Cardio Exercise 
Limit cardiovascular exercise to 20-30 minutes of fairly intense exercise 3 times a week, or 45 moderate minutes 4 times a week, if you want to gain weight. More burns too many calories. 

2. Work Big Muscles 
For overall weight and muscle gain, don't neglect the big muscles of your legs and back. 

3. Eat Some Nuts 
Carry around some nuts and dried fruits for snacking. They are nutritious as well as calorie dense. 

4. Buffet Eating 
If you want to gain weight, visit a buffet at least once a week as a way to entice yourself to eat more calories. Go when you have plenty of time, and don´t go with someone who is trying to lose weight. 

5. How Many Calories 
If you are active and trying to gain weight, you may need to eat 18-19 calories per pound of body weight. If you are eating a lot less, increase slowly. First add 20% to what you are eating, and if you haven´t gained in 2 or 3 weeks, eat 10% more. Stick with good food, not junk. 

6. How Many Calories for Muscle 
It takes an extra 2500 calories per week to build a pound of muscle, according to Ellen Coleman, RD, on www.active.com. Add another 100 calories per half hour of lifting weights. She suggests bigger portions and snacks such as nonfat milk, chicken breast, cereals, and high protein drinks. 

7. Fruit Juices for Calories 
Fruit juices offer nutrition as well as fluid, and can be a good way to increase your calorie intake after a workout, between meals, or with meals. Choose those that have real fruit juice, not fruit "drinks." Cranberry juices are especially calorie dense. 

8. Maintaining Calories 
This is the other side of a weight loss tip. If you maintain your weight at 160 pounds on 2400 calories/day, then you add 20 pounds by eating more and working out, you will need to consistently average 2700 calories/day to maintain your new weight. (Calories required vary by individual.) 

9. Get Enough Rest 
You need your rest to grow your muscles. If you don´t get enough rest, you may not metabolize your food effectively. Growth hormone is released while you sleep. 

10. Effects of Smoking 
If you have trouble gaining weight, smoking will make it even harder for you. There´s another reason to quit. 

11. Eat More Often 
To gain weight, try eating 3 meals and 2 snacks a day. Evaluate what you´re eating now, add 10-20% calories, then plan what and when you are going to eat--5 times a day. 

12. Eat Oil 
A good way to add extra calories is to sprinkle some olive oil on your food. Olive oil does not clog your arteries the way butter and other saturated fats do. 

13. Eat and Exercise 
To gain weight, you should both eat more and do weight training, so you will gain muscle and not fat. Do enough cardio work to maintain health and participate in sports you enjoy, but don´t do any extra as it can work against weight gain. 

 

Don't Let Your Diet Let You Down

Athletics is becoming increasingly competitive. More and more stress is being placed on how well you perform. To reach your highest potential, all of your body systems must be perfectly tuned. Nothing is more important to your well-being and ability to perform than good nutrition. Eating the right foods helps you maintain desirable body weight, stay physically fit, and establish optimum nerve-muscle reflexes. Without the right foods, even physical conditioning and expert coaching aren't enough to push you to your best. Good nutrition must be a key part of your training program if you are to succeed.

There is no one "miracle food" or supplement that can supply all of your nutritional needs. Certain foods supply mainly proteins, other foods contain vitamins and minerals, and so on. The key to balancing your diet is to combine different foods so that nutrient deficiencies in some foods are made up by nutrient surpluses in others. Eating a variety of foods is the secret.

The nutrients--the proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water--are teammates that work together to provide good nutrition. Just as each team member carries out different tasks during a game, each nutrient performs specific functions in your body. A lack of just one nutrient is a disadvantage to your body, just as losing a player to the penalty box is a disadvantage for a hockey team. Your body needs all these nutrients all of the time, so the foods you eat should supply them every day.

Just because you are not hungry does not necessarily mean that your body has all the nutrients it needs. You can fill up on foods that contain mostly carbohydrates and fats, but your body still has basic needs for proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

Keeping Energy Levels Up

Keeping your energy levels up for peak performance isn't easy. It doesn't just happen. High energy levels are the result of good eating and exercise habits. If you don't pay attention to either of these factors, your performance can suffer. Keeping Energy Levels Up will help you plan a diet for a winning performance.

One of the least-recognized nutrition problems of the young athlete is simply not eating enough. Extracurricular activities may make life so busy that you simply don't take the time to eat. After-school practice sessions may be so exhausting that you feel too tired to eat. But you must take the time to eat the right foods. Don't let fourth-quarter fatigue caused by poor eating hurt your performance.

Another problem of the young athlete is not eating the right kinds of foods--particularly foods high in starch. Eating a balanced diet that has plenty of starch keeps muscle energy up. Many young athletes eat more foods high in protein instead, and that's a mistake. A normal diet contains enough protein to support the added muscle growth and development of a young athlete.

The PreGame Meal Planner

What you eat every day can have a big effect on how you perform. What you eat right before an event can be critical. Wrong choices can be disastrous. Right choices can give you that competitive edge. The Pregame Meal Planner will help you make wise food choices.

While the pregame meal can supply your body with significant amounts of energy, don't expect it to supply all the energy you'll need for the event. You should eat the right kinds of food for several days before the event to charge up your muscles with glycogen. Glycogen is a key energy source your muscles use during most sports activities. Although the pregame meal won't cause large increases in muscle glycogen, it will:

  • Help avoid hunger during the event
  • Stablize blood-sugar levels and add some food energy to complement existing energy stores of muscle glycogen
  • Hydrate the body (supply water to the body's cells)
  • Provide a relatively empty stomach at game time
  • Prevent gastrointestinal upset or other adverse reactions to food

No one pregame meal is right for every athlete or every event, but some food choices are much smarter than others. General guidelines for individual food selection and meal planning are on the following page. Make sure your pregame meal plans follow these guidelines.

Keeping Fluid Levels Up

Water is a basic necessity for all life. Without it, life can't exist. Even when water is limited, living organisms suffer. You are no exception. For young athletes like yourself, not enough water means you can't do your best. It can even cause serious health problems.

Our blood circulates like an ocean within us. The water in blood helps carry nutrients and energy to our body cells. It also carries waste products away from our cells for excretion from our body. Water helps regulate our body temperature, too--an important factor for all of us.

As a young athlete, you have a special need for water. When you participate in a sport like track or volleyball, you burn a lot of food energy (called calories). Some of that unleashed energy powers muscles. But some of that energy is released as heat. Water keeps you from overheating. Sweating and evaporation from the skin cools you down. However, water is lost in the cooling process. That can be dangerous if the water is not replenished. If you run low on water, your body can overheat, like a car that is low on cooling fluid. Losing just two percent of the body's water can hurt performance. A five percent loss can cause heat exhaustion. A seven percent to ten percent loss can result in heat stroke and death. Dehydration can kill.

Young athletes have a lot of growing to do. New muscle tissue must be made. Bones need to grow rapidly. And with all of the physical activity, some tissues need to be repaired. All of this metabolic activity requires an abundance of nutrients and energy carried to body tissues and waste products carried away. Water allows all of this to happen. Water is vital for your body's growth, repair, and physical activity.

Sports Bars and Workouts

What's the best time to eat a sports bar?

When before a workout should I eat a sports bar to get the maximum benefit?

As a rule, you shouldn't gobble down a bar minutes before you hit the treadmill or bicycle. If you eat a sports bar too close to workout time, you could suffer a stomachache as your body struggles to digest the food.

Ideally, you should eat a carbohydrate-rich sports bar about one hour before exercising so your body has enough time to digest it and produce the energy needed to sustain a workout. Sports bars with a higher, more complex protein and fat content will take about two hours to digest.

Are Sports Bars the Only Answer?

High-profile advertising and promises of enhanced performance have helped sports bars become many exercisers' choice over more conventional foods -- even though many other snacks can provide similar benefits at a lower price.

Healthy alternatives to sports bars include a bowl of cereal with nonfat milk (200 to 300 calories), a plain bagel (250 to 300 calories), two waffles (150 to 200 calories), one or two packages of instant oatmeal (150 to 300 calories), and a banana with low-fat fruit-flavored yogurt (250 calories).

They Aren't All the Same

It's also important to note that not all sports bars provide the same kind of nutrition. Check the label if you're watching your daily fat and calorie intake. Sports bars can contain anywhere from 150 to a whopping 350 calories. Some bars are composed primarily of carbohydrates, while others contain more protein -- and sometimes a moderate dose of fat that you might not need.

Since carbohydrates are the primary nutrient required by working muscles, it probably makes sense to eat a carbohydrate-heavy sports bar before exercising.

Drink Your Water!

Since a sports bar contains little moisture, drink at least 12 ounces of water when you eat one and make sure to drink another eight to 12 ounces of water just before working out. The American College of Sports Medicine also recommends drinking five to six ounces of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes while exercising.

Use Common Sense

Sports bars are calorie bars. If you have eaten adequately throughout the day or before exercising, and you aren't feeling hungry, you probably don't need to eat a whole sports bar. Instead, you might pick a piece of fruit or drink a glass of juice.

However, if three to four hours have passed since your last meal, a sports bar could provide the energy boost you need to both satisfy your hunger and provide a quick energy source for a good workout.
Copyright 1999 WebMD. All rights reserved.

 

* The following Information is reprinted from the Sports Commission of Australia

Burke L. M. Energy needs of athletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 26 Suppl: S202-19, 2001.
Each athlete has unique energy requirements, which underpin their ability to meet total nutritional goals. For everyday dietary planning and evaluation, energy requirements can be predicted via estimations of RMR and activity levels. Research methods such as indirect calorimetry and DLW allow energy requirements to be measured, and may be useful to confirm situations in which an athlete has a true energy balance anomaly. There is some evidence that individual athletes may have reduced energy requirements, although this occurs less frequently than is reported. Most self-reports of food intake substantially under-estimate energy intake, due to under-reporting or under-eating during the period of record keeping. Many athletes are over-focused on reducing body mass and body fat below levels that are consistent with long-term health and performance. Restrained eating can cause significant detrimental outcomes to body function. Leptin may be involved in modulating or mediating some of these changes. Athletes should use their energy budget to choose foods that provide macronutrient and micronutrient needs for optimal health and performance. Practical advice may help athletes to achieve energy intake challenges.
You can order a complete copy of this article from the National Sport Information Cent
er

Burke L. M. Nutritional practices of male and female endurance cyclists. Sports Medicine 31: 521-32, 2001.
Each athlete has unique energy requirements, which underpin their ability to meet total nutritional goals. For everyday dietary planning and evaluation, energy requirements can be predicted via estimations of RMR and activity levels. Research methods such as indirect calorimetry and DLW allow energy requirements to be measured, and may be useful to confirm situations in which an athlete has a true energy balance anomaly. There is some evidence that individual athletes may have reduced energy requirements, although this occurs less frequently than is reported. Most self-reports of food intake substantially under-estimate energy intake, due to under-reporting or under-eating during the period of record keeping. Many athletes are over-focused on reducing body mass and body fat below levels that are consistent with long-term health and performance. Restrained eating can cause significant detrimental outcomes to body function. Leptin may be involved in modulating or mediating some of these changes. Athletes should use their energy budget to choose foods that provide macronutrient and micronutrient needs for optimal health and performance. Practical advice may help athletes to achieve energy intake challenges.
You can order a complete copy of this article from the National Sport Information Cent
er
Please note that you will need the citation information shown above to complete the article request form.

Burke L. M.  Nutritional needs for exercise in the heat. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular Integrated Physiology 128: 735-48, 2001.
Although hot conditions are not typically conducive to optimal sports performance, nutritional strategies play an important role in assisting an athlete to perform as well as possible in a hot environment. A key issue is the prevention of hypohydration during an exercise session. Fluid intake strategies should be undertaken in a cyclical sequence: hydrate well prior to the workout, drink as much as is comfortable and practical during the session, and rehydrate aggressively afterwards in preparation for future exercise bouts. There is some interest in hyperhydration strategies, such as hyperhydration with glycerol, to prepare the athlete for a situation where there is little opportunity for fluid intake to match large sweat losses. Recovery of significant fluid losses after exercise is assisted by the simultaneous replacement of electrolyte losses. Carbohydrate (CHO) requirements for exercise are increased in the heat, due to a shift in substrate utilization towards CHO oxidation. Daily food patterns should focus on replacing glycogen stores after exercise, and competition strategies should include activities to enhance CHO availability, such as CHO loading for endurance events, pre-event CHO intake, and intake of sports drinks in events lasting longer than 60 min. Although CHO ingestion may not enhance the performance of all events undertaken in hot weather, there are no disadvantages to the consumption of beverages containing 4-8% CHO and electrolytes. In fact, the palatability of these drinks may enhance the voluntary intake of fluid. Although there is some evidence of increased protein catabolism and cellular damage due to production of oxygen radicals during exercise in the heat, there is insufficient evidence to make specific dietary recommendations to account for these issues.

Maughan, R., and L. M. Burke. Sports nutrition: an historical perspective. In: Clinical Sports Nutrition (2nd ed.), edited by L. Burke and V. Deakin. Sydney: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. 1-13.
The performances of today's athletes are far superior to those achieved in earlier times, and as with improvements in the health of the general population, nutritional advances have played a role.  The increased percentage of the total gene pool which now participates in sport is a major factor in the continuing improvement of world records.  For the individual, however, training, diet and the avoidance of illness and injury will remain the most important elements.  This book provides a summary of the considerable knowledge of sports nutrition that is available to athletes in the new millennium.  It describes the rigorous science behind the principles of sports nutrition and offers guidelines for best practice in the sporting arena.  Before starting our contemporary understanding of sports nutrition, it is interesting to consider how its science and practice have evolved over the past decades and centuries.  An awareness of the history of sport, and of the evolution of training and nutritional practices, is not only of interest in itself, but can help the understanding of current practices.  This chapter highlights some key steps that have led us to where we are today.
You can order a complete copy of this article from the National Sport Information Center

Hopkins, W. G., J. A. Hawley, and L. M. Burke. Design and analysis of research on sport performance enhancement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 31: 472-485, 1999.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess research aimed at measuring performance enhancements that affect success of individual elite athletes in competitive events. 

ANALYSIS: Simulations show that the smallest worthwhile enhancement of performance for an athlete in an international event is 0.7-0.4 of the typical within-athlete random variation in performance between events. Using change in performance in events as the outcome measure in a crossover study, researchers could delimit such enhancements with a sample of 16-65 athletes, or with 65-260 in a fully controlled study. Sample size for a study using a valid laboratory or field test is proportional to the square of the within-athlete variation in performance in the test relative to the event; estimates of these variations are therefore crucial and should be determined by repeated-measures analysis of data from reliability studies for the test and event. Enhancements in test and event may differ when factors that affect performance differ between test and event; overall effects of these factors can be determined with a validity study that combines reliability data for test and event. A test should be used only if it is valid, more reliable than the event, allows estimation of performance enhancement in the event, and if the subjects replicate their usual training and dietary practices for the study; otherwise the event itself provides the only dependable estimate of performance enhancement. Publication of enhancement as a percent change with confidence limits along with an analysis for individual differences will make the study more applicable to athletes. Outcomes can be generalized only to athletes with abilities and practices represented in the study. 

CONCLUSION: estimates of enhancement of performance in laboratory or field tests in most previous studies may not apply to elite athletes in competitive events.

Hopkins, W. G., J. A. Hawley, and L. M. Burke. Researching worthwhile performance enhancements. Sportscience 3, 1999.

aDepartment of Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand; bDepartment of Human Biology & Movement Science, RMIT University, Bundoora 3083, Australia; cDepartment of Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Belconnen 2616, Australia; aCorresponding author: will.hopkins=AT=otago.ac.nz

Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghnews.html, 1999 (1101 words)

Reviewed by Stephen Seiler PhD, Institute for Sport, Agder College, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway

For an athlete at the top of the field, a performance enhancement makes a difference to the chance of winning when it is about half the athlete's typical between-event variation in performance. Measuring enhancements of this magnitude with adequate precision requires much bigger sample sizes than researchers normally use. To avoid confusion over interpretation of their findings, researchers should therefore publish and explain the precision of their estimates of performance enhancement. Reprint · Help

KEYWORDS: competitions, elite athletes, exercise tests, research design and analysis

What magnitude of performance enhancement makes a difference to an elite athlete's chance of winning the gold? What is the best way for sport scientists to study training, ergogenic aids, or other treatments that produce enhancements of this magnitude? What is the best way to present the findings for non-academics and academics to understand? We have attempted to answer these important questions in a recently published paper (Hopkins et al., 1999). The paper grew out of a mini symposium we presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in Orlando last year. Here is a plain-language account of some of the main points.

We first tackled the problem of the smallest worthwhile performance enhancement by considering an event where a few top equally matched athletes vie for first place (Figure 1). If the athletes re-run the event a large number of times, the normal random variation in the individual athletes' performance between events will ensure that each athlete gets an equal share of wins. But if one of the athletes gets an enhancement, obviously s/he will win more often. The magnitude of the enhancement has to be about as big as the normal variation in the athlete's performance between events to make a difference: much smaller and the athlete won't perform any differently; much larger and s/he will always win. In fact, when we simulated many events in a computer, we showed that an enhancement of about half the size of the normal variation in performance caused a real effect on the chance of winning. Even smaller enhancements would still make a difference to the medal tally of a country like the US.

Enhancements of this magnitude are small. To put them into perspective, the normal variation for track runners in the top half of the field at international competitions may be as low as ~0.6% (WGH, unpublished observations). That means an enhancement of about 0.3% would make a difference to one of these athletes. In the best lab tests with the best athletes researchers can get, variation in performance between tests is typically 2-3%, and seldom better than 1.5%. We show in the paper that researchers would need to test hundreds or even thousands of athletes to measure an enhancement of 0.3% with adequate precision. For example, if you observed an enhancement of 0.3%, you would want to be able to say that the true value of the enhancement is most likely to fall between 0.0% and 0.6%. (These two values are the so-called 95% confidence limits; in our paper we explain why they need to be about ±0.3% when the smallest worthwhile enhancement is 0.3%.) Now suppose that the researcher used a reasonably good performance test, one for which the subjects had a typical variation in performance of 2.0% between tests. The resulting sample size would be 350 for a crossover study or 1400 for a study with a separate control group. The usual sample size in studies of performance enhancement is 10! If the researcher observed an enhancement of 0.3% with the same test in a crossover study of 10 subjects, the true value of the enhancement could be anything between 2.3% and -1.7%--in other words, a massive positive or a massive negative effect on performance for a top athlete.

Many researchers are unaware of the need for large sample sizes when they investigate small changes in performance. Furthermore, they report results using the concept of statistical significance and so-called p values, which few scientists and no lay people understand properly. When they study a treatment that has only a small (but worthwhile) effect on performance, the small sample size almost invariably produces a result that is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In some studies with particularly small sample sizes or particularly unreliable tests, even large effects can turn up as not significant. Regardless of the magnitude of the effect, some researchers conclude incorrectly that a non-significant result means the treatment is ineffective. The way to overcome this confusion is to publish the observed change in performance and the likely range of the true value of the change (the 95% confidence limits). The researcher should then use plain language to explain the magnitude of the observed change and of the upper and lower limits of the likely range, as in the above example (see also Hopkins, 1999: Interpreting Effects). In this way there can be no confusion about the possible magnitude of the enhancement. Statistical significance, or lack of it, need not be mentioned.

In our paper we discuss other aspects of the design of experiments aimed at measuring performance enhancement, including new ways to assess the reliability and validity of tests, the need to recruit the best possible athletes for a study, the need to mimic conditions of real training and real events in a study, the impact and measurement of individual differences in enhancement, and the impact and measurement of placebo effects in unblinded studies. Time and space do not permit us to explain these aspects here. Interested readers can read the full article in the March issue of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. We welcome feedback, but please do not request reprints from us--we have not ordered any.

Hopkins WG (1999). How to write a literature review. Sportscience 3, sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html (2618 words).

Hopkins WG, Hawley JA, Burke LM (1999). Design and analysis of research on sport performance enhancement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, 472-485

Burke, L. Practical issues in nutrition for athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences 13: S83-S90, 1995.
Many athletes do not achieve sound nutritional practices to optimise their sports performance. Factors include poor nutrition knowledge, dietary extremism, poor practical skills in choosing or preparing meals, and reduced access to food due to a busy lifestyle and frequent travel. Education in nutrition for the athlete needs to be practical, so as to address eating strategies and key food and fluid choices that will help to achieve the goals of sound nutrition. Strategies that can achieve a number of nutritional goals simultaneously are most useful, since athletes often find it difficult to integrate separate issues. Athletes with extreme nutrient requirements, or with nutritional problems, should seek individual assessment and counselling from a sports nutrition expert.


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